Primary sources related to GWS include:
Primary Sources in GWS
There are many databases of historical newspapers and magazines that serve as primary sources to historical events and times. Browse those listed in the Databases / By Subject pick in the search area of the Libraries’ homepage under the category HISTORY, sub-category History (all) or, if you are only interested in North American history, then use the sub-category History–U.S./Canada. Examples of databases in that sub-category: American Periodicals Series Online (digitized pages from magazines from the Colonial Period through 1900), 19th Century U.S. Newspapers, America’s Historical Newspapers, and NewspaperARCHIVE.com.
These sources also include material relevant to North American women’s history:
- Early Encounters in North America: Peoples, Cultures,and the Environment
- American Journeys: Eyewitness Accounts of Early American Exploration and Settlement: A Digital Library and Learning Center
- Early Canadiana Online (drama, fiction, and poetry, as well as nonfiction texts describing travel, settlement, geography, history, peoples, and events in early Canada)
- In the First Person (diaries, letters, memoirs, oral histories, and other personal narratives in English from around the world, although most are from North America; many have been digitized by libraries; also indexes such material in NAWLD)
- American Memory: Historical Collections for the National Digital Library (Library of Congress), especially Women’s History
- Documenting the American South (includes slave narratives)
- Early American Imprints, Series I 1639-1800 (includes categories such as “women as authors,” diaries, etc.
Hints on Searching Primary Sources
- Use the terminology of the era you are researching, no matter how offensive those terms may be today Ex: for North American Indians, use natives, savages, aboriginies (more common in Canada), squaws, etc. as well as Indians. Try lots of synonyms.
- Spelling may not not have been standardized in the era you are studying, although some digital editions may “correct” for spelling variants in the search protocols. One problem in particular in Colonial spellings is the use of the long S character that looks like and is interpreted as an F to optical character recognition software. Search for words with an S in them using a wildcard or an F. Ex: In a database that uses th e”?” as a wildcard symbol, search for Boston as Bo?ton or Bofton. Use the Help files within databases for more hints on spelling.
- Try words, including euphemisms that are likely to occur in the telling of a narrative. Ex: for pregnancy and childbirth experiences, try “with child,” birthing, “travail,” “confinement,” “lying in,” “brought to bed,” “took to bed,” etc., as well as childbirth.
- In looking for two or more concepts (ex: “indentured servants” AND marriage), see if the database has a way to specify that the concepts should be near each other in the document or on the page. Use the help file and look for “proximity operators.” This is helpful when searching through the text of any fulltext database, not just those containing primary sources. You may need to be in an advanced search screen to find proximity searching. In databases with proximity operators, you can usually specify within how many words you would like your terms to appear, or within the same paragraph, and sometimes in what order. Proximity is also useful when you are looking for a name and you want to search for the person’s first and last name, but also allow for a middle name or initial. If you have to type in the proximity statement, the format might be something like this for the name Laura Thatcher Ulrich: Laura w/3 Ulrich. Put phrases within quotation marks, too.