2219 Bindocci, Cynthia Gay. WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGY: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. New York: Garland, 1993. Contains both historical and contemporary citations on the relationship of women to agriculture and food technology, architecture, clerical work, communications, energy/ecology, engineering/inventing, health, household work, industrial work, labor organization, military/war, reproduction, transportation, development, and general work issues.

2220 “Current Bibliography in the History of Technology.” Published annually in the April issue of TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE.

2221 JOURNAL OF WOMEN’S HISTORY GUIDE TO PERIODICAL LITERATURE, comp. Gayle V. Fischer. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1992. See bibliographies in the section headed “Work” (especially “Factory,” pp.476-480).

2222 McGaw, Judith A. “Women and the History of American Technology.” SIGNS 7, no.4 (Summer 1982): 798-828. Repr. in SEX AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY, pp.47-77. Ed. by Sandra Harding and Jean F. O’Barr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. (Review essay.)

2223 Mohanty, Gail Fowler. “Industrialization and Production of Textiles in the United States: A Bibliography.” MATERIAL HISTORY BULLETIN [Canada] 31 (Spring 1990): 33-38.

Technology: General (2224-2296)

This section lists material on the contributions of women inventors and on the effects of technology on women and society.

2224 Amram, Fred M. “Invention as Problem-Solving: Special Contributions of Female Inventors.” BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY 7 (1987): 967-971.

2225 Amram, Fred M. “Women’s Contributions to the History of Technology.” TECHNIKAT RT NETI SZEMLE 15 (1985): 67-84.

2226 Archambault, JoAllyn. “Women: Inventing the Wheel.” San Diego, CA: San Diego State University Women’s Studies Department, 1981. Discusses the inventions of American Indian Women.

2227 Armitage, Sue. “History of Women and Technology.” In WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGY: DECIDING WHAT’S APPROPRIATE, ed. Judy Smith, pp.17-19. Proceedings of a conference on women and technology, April 27-29, 1979. Missoula, MT: Women’s Resource Center, 1979.

2228 Baker, Elizabeth Faulkner. TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN’S WORK. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964.

2229 Bourque, Susan C., and Warren, Kay B. “Technology, Gender, and Development.” DAEDALUS 116 (Fall 1987): 173-198.

2230 Brody, J. “Patterns of Patents: Early British Inventions by Women.” In WOMEN IN SCIENCE: OPTIONS AND ACCESS, ed. by E. Vamos, pp.1-12. Budapest, Hungary: National Museum of Science and Technology, 1987.

2231 Bullough, Vern L. “Female Physiology, Technology, and Women’s Liberation.” In DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, ed. by Martha Moore Trescott, pp.236-251. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.

2232 Bullough, Vern L. “Merchandising the Sanitary Napkin: Lillian Gilbreth’s 1927 Survey.” SIGNS 10, no.3 (Spring 1985): 615-627.

2233 Bullough, Vern L. “Technology and Female Sexuality and Physiology: Some Implications.” JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH 16 (1980): 59-71.


2235 Cahn, Susan. INDUSTRY OF DEVOTION: THE TRANSFORMATION OF WOMEN’S WORK IN ENGLAND, 1500-1660. New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.

2236 Cohen, Marjorie. WOMEN’S WORK, MARKETS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY ONTARIO. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988.

2237 CONNEXIONS 15 (Winter 1985): Special Issue on “Changing Technology,” with reports from sixteen countries.

2238 Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. “From Virginia Dare to Virginia Slims: Women and Technology in American Life.” TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 20, no.1 (January 1979); 51-63. Also in DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, ed. by Martha Moore Trescott, pp.30-44. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.

2239 Davidson, Marilyn J., and Cooper, Cary L., eds. WOMEN AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. New York: Wiley, 1987.

2240 Dodd, Dianne. “Women in Advertising: The Role of Canadian Women in the Promotion of Domestic Electrical Technology in the Interwar Period.” In DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed. by Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.134-151. Montreal: Vehicule Press; Buffalo, NY: U.S. distributor, University of Toronto Press, 1990.

2241 Faulkner, Wendy, and Arnold, Erik, eds. SMOTHERED BY INVENTION: TECHNOLOGY IN WOMEN’S LIVES. London: Pluto, 1985.


2243 Hacker, Barton C., and Hacker, Sally L. “Military Institutions and the Labor Process: Non-Economic Sources of Technological Change, Women’s Subordination, and the Organization of Work.” TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 28 (1987): 743-775.

2244 Hacker, Sally L. PLEASURE, POWER, AND TECHNOLOGY: SOME TALES OF GENDER, ENGINEERING, AND THE COOPERATIVE WORKPLACE. Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989. While generally dealing with contemporary issues, contains historical background information.

2245 Hinton, Leanne. “Oral Traditions and the Advent of Electric Power.” In TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN’S VOICES: KEEPING IN TOUCH, ed. Cheris Kramarae. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988.

2246 Hochwald, Eve. “Studying Technological Discrimination: Some Feminist Questions.” FEMINIST ISSUES 5, no.1 (Spring 1985): 39-64. Overview of the new scholarship on the impact of technology on women’s work.

2247 Hynes, H. Patricia, ed. RECONSTRUCTING BABYLON: ESSAYS ON WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGY. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991. Essays on the impact of twentieth century technologies on women’s health.

2248 Irvin, Helen Deiss. “The Machine in Utopia: Shaker Women and Technology.” WOMEN’S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 4, no.3 (1981): 313-319. Covers the invention and use of technological devices by Shaker women, both in domestic work and commercial enterprises.


2250 James, Portia P. THE REAL MCCOY: AFRICAN-AMERICAN INVENTION AND INNOVATION, 1619-1930. Washington, DC: Anacostia Museum of the Smithsonian Institution/Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989. Includes women inventors such as Julia Hammonds who patented a device to hold yarn while knitting.

2251 Jellison, Katherine. “Women and Technology on the Great Plains, 1910-1940.” GREAT PLAINS QUARTERLY 8 (Summer 1988): 145-157.

2252 Kowaleski, Maryanne, and Bennett, Judith M. “Crafts, Guilds, and Women in the Middle Ages: Fifty Years After Marian K. Dale.” SIGNS 14 (Winter 1989): 474-501.

2253 Kramarae, Cheris, ed. TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN’S VOICES: KEEPING IN TOUCH. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988.

2254 Kronenfeld, Jennie Jacobs. “Feminist Movements and Change in Sex Roles: The Influence of Technology.” SOCIOLOGICAL FOCUS 19 (January 1986): 47-60.

2255 Macdonald, Anne L. FEMININE INGENUITY: WOMEN AND INVENTION IN AMERICA. New York: Ballantine Books, 1992.

2256 Maines, Rachel. “Socially Camouflaged Technologies: The Case of the Electromagnetic Vibrator.” IEEE TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE MAGAZINE 8, no.2 (June 1989): 3-11.


2258 McDaniel, Susan A., Cummins, Helene, and Beauchamp, Rachelle Sender. “Mothers of Invention? Meshing the Roles of Inventor, Mother, and Worker.” WOMEN STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 11 (1988): 1-12.

2259 McGaw, Judith A. “No Passive Victims, No Separate Spheres: A Feminist Perspective on Technology’s History.” In IN CONTEXT, ed. by S.H. Cutcliffe and R.C. Post, pp.172-91. Cranbury, NJ: Lehigh University Press; Associated University Presses, 1989.

2260 Merritt, Deborah J. “Hypatia in the Patent Office: Women Inventors and the Law, 1865-1900.” THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF LEGAL HISTORY 35, no.3 (July 1991): 235-306.

2261 Ong, Aihwa. “Disassembling Gender in the Electronics Age.” FEMINIST STUDIES 13 (Fall 1987): 609-626. Review essay of six books on technology & gender.

2262 Pederson, Diana, and Phemister, Martha. “Women and Photography in Ontario, 1839-1929: A Case Study of the Interaction of Gender and Technology.” In DESPITE THE ODDS: ESSAYS ON CANADIAN WOMEN AND SCIENCE, ed. by Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley, pp.88-111. Montreal: Vehicule Press, 1990.

2263 Phillips, K. “United States Patent and Trademark Office Study Finds More Inventions Credited to Women.” SCIENTIST 4, no.20 (1990): 24.

2264 Pursell, Carroll W., Jr. “Toys, Technology and Sex Roles in America, 1920-1940.” In DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, ed. by Martha Moore Trescott, pp.252-267. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.

2265 Pursell, Carroll W., Jr. “Women Inventors in America.” TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 22, no.3 (July 1981): 545-549. Covers 18th and 19th centuries.

2266 Rakow, Lana F. GENDER ON THE LINE: WOMEN, THE TELEPHONE, AND COMMUNITY LIFE. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992.

2267 Rakow, Lana F. “Women and the Telephone: The Gendering of a Communications Technology.” In TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN’S VOICES: KEEPING IN TOUCH, ed. Cheris Kramarae. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988.

2268 Romney, Caroline. “Women as Inventors, and the Value of Their Inventions in Household Economics.” JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION 9, no.1 (September 1894): 1-11,22-26.

2269 Rothman, Sheila M. WOMAN’S PROPER PLACE: A HISTORY OF CHANGING IDEALS AND PRACTICES, 1870 TO THE PRESENT. New York: Basic Books, 1978. See chapter 1, “Women’s Special Sphere,” with section on “Technology and the White Woman’s Burden,” pp.14-20.

2270 Rothschild, Joan. “From Sex to Gender in the History of Technology.” In IN CONTEXT, ed. S.H. Cutcliffe and R.C. Post, pp.192-203. Cranbury, NJ: Lehigh University Press; Associated University Presses, 1989.

2271 Rothschild, Joan. MACHINA EX DEA: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES ON TECHNOLOGY. New York: Pergamon, 1983.

2272 Rothschild, Joan, ed. WOMEN, TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION. New York: Pergamon, 1982. Originally published as WOMEN’S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 4, no.3 (1981).

2273 Scharff, Virginia. TAKING THE WHEEL: WOMEN AND THE COMING OF THE MOTOR AGE. New York: Free Press, 1991.

2274 Scott, Joan Wallach. “The Mechanization of Women’s Work.” SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 247, no.3 (September 1982): 167-187.

2275 Spurgeon, Anne M. “Marketing the Unmentionable: Wallace Meyer & the Introduction of Kotex.” MARYLAND HISTORIAN 19 (Spring/Summer 1988): 17-30.

2276 Stanley, Autumn. “The Champion of Women Inventors.” AMERICAN HERITAGE OF INVENTION & TECHNOLOGY 8, no.1 (Summer 1992): 22-27.

2277 Stanley, Autumn. “Daughters of Isis, Daughters of Demeter: When Women Sowed and Reaped.” WOMEN’S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 4, no.3 (1981): 289-304. Women’s early roles in food-gathering and the development of horticultural technology.

2278 Stanley, Autumn. “Do Mothers Invent? The Feminist Debate in the History of Technology.” In THE KNOWLEDGE EXPLOSION: GENERATIONS OF FEMINIST SCHOLARSHIP, ed. Cheris Kramarae & Dale Spender, pp.459-472. New York: Teachers College Press, 1992. Reviews the impact of feminism on the study of the history of technology since 1976.

2279 Stanley, Autumn. “From Africa to America: Black Women Inventors.” In THE TECHNOLOGICAL WOMEN, ed. Jan Zimmerman. New York: Praeger, 1983.

2280 Stanley, Autumn. “Invention Begins at Forty: Older Women of the 19th Century as Inventors.” JOURNAL OF WOMEN & AGING 2, no.2 (1990): 133-151.


2282 Stanley, Autumn. “Once and Future Power: Women as Inventors.” WOMEN’S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 15, no.2 (1992): 193-204.

2283 Stanley, Autumn. “The Patent Clerk as Conjurer: The Vanishing Lady Trick in a 19th-Century Historical Source.” In WOMEN, WORK, AND TECHNOLOGY: TRANSFORMATIONS, ed. Barbara Drygulski Wright et al. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987.

2284 Stanley, Autumn. “Women Hold Up Two-Thirds of the Sky: Notes for a Revised History of Technology.” ISIS WOMEN’S WORLD no.9 (March 1986): 3-4.

2285 TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 87, no.8 (November/December 1984): Special Section: “Women in Technology”: 29-52.


2287 U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. BUTTONS TO BIOTECH: U.S. PATENTING BY WOMEN, 1977-1988. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Patent and Trademark Office, Office of Documentation Information, Technology Assessment and Forecast Program, 1990.

2288 U.S. Patent Office. WOMEN INVENTORS TO WHOM PATENTS HAVE BEEN GRANTED BY THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, 1790 TO JULY 1, 1888. Washington: 1888. Appendix #1, JULY 1, 1888 TO OCTOBER 1, 1892: Washington: 1892. Appendix #2, OCTOBER 1, 1892 TO MARCH 1, 1895: Washington: 1895.

2289 Wajcman, Judy. “Feminism Confronts Technology.” University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991.

2290 Warner, Deborah J. “Women Inventors at the Centennial.” In DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, ed. by Martha Moore Trescott, pp.102-119. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979. Includes checklist of women and their inventions displayed at the Women’s Pavilion at the Centennial celebration, Philadelphia, 1876.

2291 Whicker, Marcia Lynn, and Kronenfeld, Jennie Jacobs. SEX ROLE CHANGES: TECHNOLOGY, POLITICS, AND POLICY. New York: Praeger, 1986.

2292 Whyte, Judith. GIRLS INTO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: THE STORY OF A PROJECT. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986.

2293 “Women’s Contributions in the Field of Invention.” BULLETIN OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU no.28 (1923). U.S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau.

2294 WOMEN’S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 4, no.3 (1981); Special Issue: “Women, Technology, and Innovation.” Contents: Autumn Stanley, “Daughters of Isis, Daughters of Demeter: When Women Sowed and Reaped”; Margaret Alic, “Women and Technology in Ancient Alexandria: Maria and Hypatia”; Helen Deiss Irvin, “The Machine in Utopia: Shaker Women and Technology”; Erik Arnold, Lynda Birke, and Wendy Faulkner, “Women and Microelectronics: The Case of Word Processors”; Sally L. Hacker, “The Culture of Engineering: Women, Workplace, and Machine”; Jan Zimmerman, “Technology and the Future of Women: Haven’t We Met Somewhere Before?”; Inestra King, “Feminist Pedagogy and Technology: Reflections on the Goddard Feminism and Ecology Summer Program”; Corlann Gee Bush, “A Preview of the AAUW’s Biennial Study/Action Topic `Taking Hold of Technology'”; Christine Bose, “Teaching Women and Technology at the University of Washington”; “Women and Technology Project, Missoula, Montana”; book reviews.

2295 WOMEN’S TECHNICAL CONTRIBUTIONS. New York: Society of Women Engineers, 1980. 2nd ed.

2296 Wright, Barbara Drygulski, ed. WOMEN, WORK, AND TECHNOLOGY: TRANSFORMATIONS. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987.

Technology, Paid Labor, & Workplace (2297-2366)

Citations listed here cover technological developments in the workplace affecting women. Some of the industries mentioned are furniture making, electric products, shoemaking, printing, shipbuilding, and textiles.

2297 Anderson, Karen T. “Last Hired, First Fired: Black Women Workers During World War II.” JOURNAL OF AMERICAN HISTORY 69 (June 1982): 86-97.

2298 Anderson, Karen T. “Teaching about Rosie the Riveter: The Role of Women During World War II.” OAH MAGAZINE OF HISTORY 3 (Summer/Fall 1988): 35-37.

2299 Andrews, Melodie. “`What the Girls Can Do’: The Debate over the Employment of Women in the Early American Telegraph Industry.” ESSAYS IN ECONOMIC AND BUSINESS HISTORY 8 (1990): 109-120.

2300 Arnold, Erik, Birke, Lynda, and Faulkner, Wendy. “Women and Microelectronics: The Case of Word Processors.” WOMEN’S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 4, no.3 (1981): 321-340. A socialist-feminist analysis.

2301 Baron, Ava. “Questions of Gender: Deskilling and Demasculinization in the U.S. Printing Industry, 1830-1915.” GENDER & HISTORY 1 (Summer 1989): 178-199.

2302 Barrett, Eilidh, M. “The Trials of Labour: Motherhood versus Employment in a Nineteenth-Century Textile Centre.” CONTINUITY AND CHANGE 5, no.1 (1990): 121-154.

2303 Berg, Maxine. “Women’s Work, Mechanisation, and the Early Phases of Industrialisation in England.” In THE HISTORICAL MEANINGS OF WORK, ed. Patrick Joyce, pp.64-98. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

2304 Biggs, Mary. “Neither Printer’s Wife nor Widow: American Women in Typesetting, 1830-1950.” LIBRARY QUARTERLY 500, no.4 (1980): 431-452.

2305 Blackwelder, Julia Kirk. “Mop and Typewriter: Women’s Work in Early Twentieth-Century Atlanta.” ATLANTA HISTORY JOURNAL (Fall 1983): 21-30.

2306 Blewett, Mary H. “I Am Doom to Disapointment: The Diaries of a Beverly, Massachusetts Shoebinder, Sarah E. Trask, 1849-51.” ESSEX INSTITUTE HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS 117 (July 1981): 192-212.

2307 Blewett, Mary H. “The Union of Sex and Craft in the Haverhill Shoe Strike of 1895.” LABOR HISTORY 20 (Summer 1979): 352-375.

2308 Blewett, Mary H. “Women Shoemakers and Domestic Ideology: Rural Outwork in Early Nineteenth-Century Essex County.” NEW ENGLAND QUARTERLY 60 (September 1987): 403-428.

2309 Boris, Eileen. “Homework and Women’s Rights: The Case of the Vermont Knitters 1980-1985.” SIGNS 13 (Autumn 1987): 98-120.

2310 Boris, Eileen. “Regulating Industrial Homework: The Triumph of `Sacred Motherhood’.” JOURNAL OF AMERICAN HISTORY 71 (March 1985): 745-763.

2311 Borish, Linda J. “Farm Females, Fitness, and the Ideology of Physical Health in Antebellum New England.” AGRICULTURAL HISTORY 64 (Summer 1990): 17-30.

2312 Brown, Ava, and Klepp, Susan E. “If I didn’t Have My Sewing Machine…: Women and Sewing Machine Technology.” In A NEEDLE, A BOBBIN, A STRIKE: WOMEN NEEDLEWORKERS IN AMERICA, ed. by Jean Jensen & Sue Davidson. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1984.

2313 Bulbeck, Chilla. “Manning the Machines: Women in the Furniture Industry, 1920-1960.” LABOUR HISTORY 51 (November 1986): 24-32.

2314 Burns, Stewart. “Capacitors and Community: Women Workers at Sprague Electric, 1930-1980.” PUBLIC HISTORIAN 11 (Fall 1989): 61-82.

2315 Cockburn, Cynthia. BROTHERS: MALE DOMINANCE AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE. London: Pluto, 1983. Study of the artisan tradition of compositors in the British newspaper industry and its masculinist culture.

2316 Cockburn, Cynthia. “Caught in the Wheels: The High Cost of Being a Female Cog in the Male Machinery of Engineering.” In THE SOCIAL SHAPING OF TECHNOLOGY: HOW THE REFRIGERATOR GOT ITS HUM. ed. by Donald MacKenzie and Judy Wajcman, pp.55-65. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1985.

2317 Cockburn, Cynthia. MACHINERY OF DOMINANCE: WOMEN, MEN, AND TECHNICAL KNOW-HOW. London: Pluto, 1986. A look at the gendering process in several industries affected by new technologies.

2318 Cockburn, Cynthia. “The Material of Male Power.” In THE SOCIAL SHAPING OF TECHNOLOGY: HOW THE REFRIGERATOR GOT ITS HUM, ed. by Donald MacKenzie and Judy Wajcman, pp.125-146. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1985.

2319 Coffin, Judith. “Social Science Meets Sweated Labor: Reinterpreting Women’s Work in Late Nineteenth-Century France.” THE JOURNAL OF MODERN HISTORY 63 (June 1991): 230-270.

2320 Cohen, Marjorie. “Changing Perceptions of the Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Female Labour.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF WOMEN’S STUDIES 7 (September/October 1984): 291-305.

2321 Cooper, Patricia A. “`What This Country Needs in a Good Five-Cent Cigar.'” TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 29 (October 1988): 779-807.

2322 Davis, Lynne. “Minding Children or Minding Machines…Women’s Labour and Child Care During World War II.” LABOUR HISTORY 53 (November 1987): 85-98.

2323 Davis, Natalie Zemon. “Women in the Crafts in Sixteenth-Century Lyon.” FEMINIST STUDIES 8, no.1 (Spring 1982): 46-80.

2324 Dublin, Thomas. WOMEN AT WORK: THE TRANSFORMATION OF WORK AND COMMUNITY IN LOWELL, MASSACHUSETTS, 1826-1860. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.

2325 Dubnoff, Steven. “Gender, the Family, and the Problem of Work Motivation in a Transition to Industrial Capitalism.” JOURNAL OF FAMILY HISTORY 4 (Summer 1979): 121-136.

2326 Francis, Raelene. “`No More Amazons’: Gender and Work Process in the Victorian Clothing Trades, 1890-1939.” LABOUR HISTORY 50 (May 1986): 95-112.

2327 Gluck, Sherna Berger. “Interlude or Change: Women and the World War II Work Experience: A Feminist Oral History.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ORAL HISTORY 3 (June 1982): 92-113.

2328 Goldberg, Vicki. “Woman of Steel.” AMERICAN HERITAGE OF INVENTION & TECHNOLOGY 2 (Spring 1987): 16-22.

2329 Gosling, F.G. “Dial Painters Project: Argonne National Laboratory’s Documentation of Radium Hazards to Workers.” LABOR’S HERITAGE 4, no.2 (Summer 1992): 64-77. Most of the workers were women and teenage girls.

2330 Hacker, Sally L. “The Culture of Engineering: Woman, Workplace and Machine.” WOMEN’S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 4, no.3 (1981): 341-353. Explores patriarchal elements in the culture of engineering/management.

2331 Hacker, Sally L. “Sex Stratification, Technology, and Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Case Study of AT&T.” SOCIAL PROBLEMS 26, no.5 (June 1979): 539-557.

2332 Harrison, Barbara. “Suffer the Working Day: Women in the `Dangerous Trades,’ 1880-1914.” WOMEN’S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 13, no.1/2 (1990): 79-90.

2333 Hartmann, Heidi I., Kraut, Robert E., and Tilly, Louise A., eds. COMPUTER CHIPS AND PAPER CLIPS: TECHNOLOGY AND WOMEN’S EMPLOYMENT. Washington: National Academy Press, 1986. 2 vols. In vol.1, see chapter 2, “Historical Patterns of Technological Change,” pp.24-61, for background on telephone operators, workers in printing and publishing, office workers, retail clerks, and nurses. In vol. 2, see Claudia Goldin’s statistical study, “Women’s Employment and Technological Change: A Historical Perspective,” pp.185-222, plus case studies of the insurance industry by Barbara Baran (pp.25-62), bookkeeping by Sharon Hartman Strom (pp.63-97), secretarial work by Mary C. Murphee (pp.98-135), and computer-related occupations and high-tech industries, by Myra H. Strober and Carolyn L. Arnold (pp.136-182).

2334 Henry, Susan. “Work, Widowhood and War: Hannah Bunce Watson, Connecticut Printer.” CONNECTICUT HISTORICAL SOCIETY BULLETIN 48 (Winter 1983): 25-39.

2335 Hirschfield, Deborah Scott. “Women Shipyard Workers in the Second World War.” INTERNATIONAL HISTORY REVIEW 11 (August 1989): 478-485.

2336 Horn, Jon. “History of the Dalles Lumbering Co.” WOMEN IN NATURAL RESOURCES 11 (March 1990): 28-33.

2337 Hunt, Felicity. “The London Trade in the Printing and Binding of Books: An Experience in Exclusion, Dilution and De-skilling for Women Workers.” WOMEN’S STUDIES 6, no.5 (1983): 517-524.

2338 Jordan, Ellen. “The Exclusion of Women from Industry in Nineteenth- Century Britain.” COMPARATIVE STUDIES IN SOCIETY AND HISTORY 31 (April 1989): 273-296.

2339 Kessler-Harris, Alice. OUT TO WORK: A HISTORY OF WAGE-EARNING WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982. See especially chapter 6, “Technology, Efficiency, and Resistance.”


2341 Levine, Susan. “Ladies and Looms: The Social Impact of Machine Power in the American Carpet Industry.” In DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, ed. by Martha Moore Trescott, pp.67-76. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.

2342 Lown, Judy. WOMEN AND INDUSTRIALIZATION: GENDER AND WORK IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY ENGLAND. Cambridge, England: Polity, 1990. A study of textile workers.

2343 Martin, Michele. “HELLO, CENTRAL?”: GENDER, TECHNOLOGY, AND CULTURE IN THE FORMATION OF TELEPHONE SYSTEMS. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1991.

2344 McGaw, Judith A. “Technological Change and Women’s Work: Mechanization in the Berkshire Paper Industry, 1820-1855.” In DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, ed. by Martha Moore Trescott, pp. 77-99. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.

2345 Milkman, Ruth. “Female Factory Labor and Industrial Structure: Control and Conflict over `Woman’s Place’ in Auto and Electrical Manufacturing.” POLITICS AND SOCIETY 12 (1983): 159-203.

2346 Milkman, Ruth. “Redefining `Women’s Work’: The Sexual Division of Labor in the Auto Industry During World War I.” FEMINIST STUDIES 8 (Summer 1982): 337-372.

2347 Milkman, Ruth. “Rosie the Riveter Revisited: Management’s Postwar Purge of Women Automobile Workers.” In ON THE LINE: ESSAYS IN THE HISTORY OF AUTO WORK, ed. by Nelson Lichtenstein and Stephen Meyer. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

2348 Mohanty, Gail Fowler. “From Craft to Industry: Textile Production in the United States.” MATERIAL HISTORY BULLETIN [Canada] 31 (Spring 1990): 23-31.

2349 Mulligan, William H. Jr. “Mechanization and Work in the American Shoe Industry, Lynn, Massachusetts, 1852-1883.” THE JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC HISTORY 41, no.1 (March 1981): 59-64.

2350 Nash, Gary B. “The Failure of Female Factory Labor in Colonial Boston.” LABOR HISTORY 20 (Spring 1979): 165-188.

2351 Nisonoff, Laurie. “Bread and Roses: The Proletarianisation of Women Workers in New England Textile Mills, 1827-1848.” HISTORICAL JOURNAL OF MASSACHUSETTS 9 (January 1981): 3-14.

2352 Offen, Karen. “`Powered by a Woman’s Foot’: A Documentary Introduction to the Sexual Politics of the Sewing Machine in Nineteenth-Century France.” WOMEN’S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 11, no.2 (1988): 93-101. Four translated documents about the health and morals of female sewing machine operators reveal “the highly-gendered intersection of technological innovation, economics, and medicine.” An introductory essay and afterword provide historical context.

2353 Quataert, Jean H. “The Shaping of Women’s World in Manufacturing: Guilds, Households, and the State in Central Europe, 1648-1870.” AMERICAN HISTORICAL REVIEW 90 (December 1985): 1122-1148.

2354 Quataert, Jean H. “A Source Analysis in German Women’s History: Factory Inspectors’ Reports and the Shaping of Working Class Lives, 1878-1914.” CENTRAL EUROPEAN HISTORY 16 (June 1983): 99-121.

2355 Reynolds, Sian. “Women in the Printing and Paper Trades in Edwardian Scotland.” In THE WORLD IS ILL DIVIDED: WOMEN’S WORK IN SCOTLAND IN THE NINETEENTH AND EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURIES, ed. Eleanor Gordon & Esther Breitenbach, pp.49-69. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1990.

2356 Rios, Palmiran. “Export-Oriented Industrialization and the Demand for Female Labor: Puerto Rican Women in the Manufacturing Sector, 1952-1980.” GENDER & SOCIETY 4 (September 1990): 321-337.

2357 Rose, Sonya O. “Gender Segregation in the Transition to the Factory: The English Hosiery Industry, 1850-1910.” FEMINIST STUDIES 13 (Spring 1987): 163-184.

2358 Ruddell, David-Thiery. “Domestic Textile Production in Colonial Quebec, 1608-1840.” MATERIAL HISTORY BULLETIN [Canada] 31 (Spring 1990): 39-49.

2359 Sacks, Karen Brodkin, and Remy, Dorothy, eds. MY TROUBLES ARE GOING TO HAVE TROUBLE WITH ME: EVERYDAY TRIALS AND TRIUMPHS OF WOMEN WORKERS. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1984.

2360 Schmiechen, James A. SWEATED INDUSTRIES AND SWEATED LABOR: THE LONDON CLOTHING TRADES, 1860-1914. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1984.

2361 Tentler, Leslie Woodcock. WAGE-EARNING WOMEN: INDUSTRIAL WORK AND FAMILY LIFE IN THE UNITED STATES, 1900-1939. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.

2362 Tillotson, Shirley. “The Operators Along the Coast: A Case Study of the Link Between Gender, Skilled Labour and Social Power, 1900-1930.” ACADIENSIS 20 (Autumn 1990): 72-88.

2363 Tsurumi, E. Patricia. FACTORY GIRLS: WOMEN IN THE THREAD MILLS OF MEIJI JAPAN. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990.

2364 Valenze, Deborah. “The Art of Women and the Business of Men: Women’s Work and the Dairy Industry c.1740-1840.” PAST & PRESENT no.130 (February 1991): 142-169.

2365 Walshok, Mary Lindenstein. BLUE COLLAR WOMEN: PIONEERS ON THE MALE FRONTIER. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1981.

2366 Zonderman, David A. “From Mill Village to Industrial City: Letters from Vermont Factory Operatives.” LABOR HISTORY 27 (Spring 1986): 265-285.

Engineering & Technical Professions (2367-2386)

2367 Bradby, Marie. “Hispanic Women at the Johnson Space Center.” HISPANIC ENGINEER 5, no.3 (Fall 1989): 28-31.

2368 Christensen, Lawrence O. “Being Special: Women Students at the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy.” MISSOURI HISTORICAL REVIEW 83, no.1 (1988): 17-35.

2369 Florman, Samuel C. “Will Women Engineers Make A Difference?” TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 87, no.8 (November/December 1984): 51-52.

2370 Goff, Alice G. WOMEN CAN BE ENGINEERS. Youngstown, OH: privately published, 1946.

2371 Haas, Violet B., and Perrucci, Carolyn C., eds. WOMEN IN SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PROFESSIONS. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1984. See in particular “Responsibilities of Women Faculty in Engineering Schools,” by Mildred S. Dresselhaus, pp.128-134; and “Women Engineers in History: Profiles in Holism and Persistence,” by Martha M. Trescott, pp.181-204.

2372 Hynes, H. Patricia. “Feminism and Engineering: The Inroads.” In THE KNOWLEDGE EXPLOSION: GENERATIONS OF FEMINIST SCHOLARSHIP, ed. Cheris Kramarae & Dale Spender, pp.133-140. New York: Teachers College Press, 1992. Reviews the impact of feminism on engineering since the late 1960s.

2373 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EDUCATION E-28, no.4 (November 1985); Special Issue: “Women in Engineering.”

2374 Kozloski, Lillian, and Mackowski, Maura J. “The Wrong Stuff.” FINAL FRONTIERS (May/June 1990): 20-23,52-55. Description of program to test women pilots for inclusion in the Mercury astronaut program and the reasons why the women who were found qualified were not employed.

2375 Kreinberg, Nancy. I’M MADLY IN LOVE WITH ELECTRICITY — AND OTHER COMMENTS ABOUT THEIR WORK BY WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Berkeley: Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, 1977.

2376 Lefcourt, Susan. “Women in Engineering — Revisited.” CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (November 3, 1969): 92-98.

2377 Marcus, Gail H. “The Status of Women in the Nuclear Industry.” BULLETIN OF THE ATOMIC SCIENTISTS 32, no.4 (April 1976): 34-39

2378 McIlwee, Judith S., and Robinson, J. Gregg. WOMEN IN ENGINEERING: GENDER, POWER, AND WORKPLACE CULTURE. Albany, NY: State University of New York, 1992.

2379 Nichols, Roberta. “Women in Science and Engineering: Are Jobs Really Sexless?” TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 75 (June 1973): 43-47.

2380 Parrish, John B. “Women Continue in the Professions.” CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS 84, no.1 (January 1988): 50-56.

2381 Pursell, Carroll W., Jr. “`Am I a Lady or an Engineer?’ The Origins of the Women’s Engineering Society in Britain, 1918-1940.” TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 34, no.1 (January 1993): 78-97.

2382 Saigal, Anil. “Women Engineers: An Insight Into Their Problems.” U.S. WOMAN ENGINEER 34, no.4 (July/August 1988): 42-43.

2383 Trescott, Martha Moore. “A History of Women Engineers in the United States, 1850-1975: A Progress Report.” In PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY OF WOMEN ENGINEERS 1979 NATIONAL CONFERENCE, pp.1-14. New York: Society of Women Engineers, 1979.

2384 Trescott, Martha Moore. “Women and Engineering Education: Historical Sketches.” In WOMEN AND ENGINEERING EDUCATION: REPORT ON A CONFERENCE OF THE CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, 20 AND 21 MARCH 1987, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, pp.II1-II16. Northridge, CA: Women in Science and Engineering Programs, School of Engineering and Computer Science, California State University, 1988.

2385 Trescott, Martha Moore. “Women Engineers in History: Profiles in Holism and Persistence.” In WOMEN IN SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PROFESSIONS, ed. by Violet B. Haas and Carolyn C. Perrucci, pp.181-204. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981. Includes lengthy comments on industrial engineer Lillian Gilbreth.

2386 Trescott, Martha Moore. “Women in the Intellectual Development of Engineering: A Study in Persistence and Systems Thought.” In WOMEN OF SCIENCE: RIGHTING THE RECORD, ed. by G. Kass-Simon & Patricia Farnes, pp.147-187. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990.

Biographies & Studies: Engineers & Technologists (2387-2407)

2387 Alic, Margaret. “Women and Technology in Ancient Alexandria: Maria and Hypatia.” WOMEN’S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL QUARTERLY 4, NO.3 (1981): 305-312. Describes what may be the earliest technological work that can be ascribed to women.

2388 Bishop, Ronald L., and Lange, Frederick W., eds. THE CERAMIC LEGACY OF ANNA O. SHEPARD. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1991.

2389 Brittain, James E. “From Computer to Electrical Engineer: The Remarkable Career of Edith Clarke.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EDUCATION E-28, no.4 (November 1985): 184-189.

2390 Bromberg, Howard. “Grace Murray Hopper: A Remembrance.” IEEE SOFTWARE 9, no.3 (May 1992): 103. U.S. Navy Rear Admiral Hopper (d. January 1, 1992) was the co-inventor of the computer language COBOL. Obituaries also appeared in COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM 32, no.4 (April 1992): 128; DIGITAL REVIEW 9, no.2 (January 20, 1992): 40; FEDERAL COMPUTER WEEK 6, no.1 (January 13, 1992): 26; IEEE SOFTWARE 9, no.2 (March 1992): 95, and elsewhere.

2391 “A Career, Business, Life Built on Freedom and Flexibility.” IEEE SOFTWARE 9, no.4 (July 1992): 77. Interview with Steve Shirley, who changed her name to “Steve” to sell her software more easily and who helped form the group Women in Information Technology (Women in IT).

2392 Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. “Ellen Swallow Richards: Technology and Women.” In TECHNOLOGY IN AMERICA: A HISTORY OF INDIVIDUALS AND IDEAS, ed. Carroll W. Pursell, Jr. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981. 1st ed. 2nd ed. 1990. pp.142-150.

2393 Dresselhaus, Mildred S. “Electrical Engineer.” SUCCESSFUL WOMEN IN THE SCIENCES: AN ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS, ed. by Ruth B. Kundsin, pp.17-22. (ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 208; 1973.) Repr. with title WOMEN AND SUCCESS: THE ANATOMY OF ACHIEVEMENT. New York: Morrow, 1974.

2394 Herzenberg, Caroline L., and Howes, Ruth Hege. “Women of the Manhattan Project.” TECHNOLOGY REVIEW (in press).

2395 Howes, Ruth Hege, and Herzenberg, Caroline L. “Women in Weapons Development: The Manhattan Project.” WOMEN AND THE USE OF MILITARY FORCE, ed. Ruth Hege Howes and Michael R. Stevenson, pp.95-110. Boulder, CO: Lynne Riener, 1993.

2396 Keeshan, Kathleen K. “From the Arts to Applied Mathematics: A Path to Success in Research.” U.S. WOMAN ENGINEER 36, no.2 (March-April 1990): 11-13. On the career of Patricia Selinger of IBM Database Technology Institute.

2397 Moore, Glenis. “Hertha Ayrton – First Lady of the IEE.” ELECTRONICS & POWER 32 (August 1986): 583-585. Inventor of a portable fan for repulsing poison gases.

2398 Perry, Tekla S. “Susan Hackwood.” IEEE SPECTRUM 29, no.8 (August 1992): 62+. Founding Dean of University of California at Riverside College of Engineering.

2399 Richmond, Caroline. “A Builder of Bridges (Joanna Kennedy).” NEW SCIENTIST 102 (June 7, 1984): 38.

2400 Robinson, Lisa Mae. “Regulating What We Eat: Mary Engle Pennington and the Food Research Laboratory.” AGRICULTURAL HISTORY 64 (Spring 1990): 143-153.

2401 Sluby, Patricia Carter. “Black Women and Inventions.” SAGE 6, no.2 (1989): 33-35.

2402 Trescott, Martha Moore. “Julia B. Hall and Aluminum.” In DYNAMOS AND VIRGINS REVISITED: WOMEN AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN HISTORY, ed. by Martha Moore Trescott, pp.149-179. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1979.

2403 Trescott, Martha Moore. “Lillian Moller Gilbreth and the Founding of Modern Industrial Engineering.” MACHINA EX DEA: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES ON TECHNOLOGY, ed. by Joan Rothschild, pp.23-37. New York: Pergamon, 1983.

2404 Vare, Ethlie Ann, and Ptacek, Greg. MOTHERS OF INVENTION: A HISTORY OF FORGOTTEN WOMEN AND THEIR UNFORGETTABLE IDEAS. New York: Morrow, 1988. Brief biographies of over 100 inventors.

2405 Weigold, Marilyn E. SILENT BUILDER: EMILY WARREN ROEBLING AND THE BROOKLYN BRIDGE. Port Washington, NY: Associated Faculty Press, 1984. Civil engineer.

2406 Wheeler, Roger, and Snowdon, Philip. “American Women in Space.” JOURNAL OF THE BRITISH INTERPLANETARY SOCIETY 40 (1987): 81-88. Biographies of the first 12 women in space.

2407 Zientara, Marguerite. WOMEN, TECHNOLOGY, AND POWER: TEN STARS AND THE HISTORY THEY MADE. New York: AMACOM, 1987. Oral histories of ten female leaders in the microcomputer industry.

Reproductive Technology (2408-2433)

This section primarily lists works on the history of technological devices used in promoting (ex.: forceps, fetal monitors) or preventing (ex.: intrauterine devices, diaphragm) childbirth. Some discuss the development of the sanitary napkin.

2408 Arditti, Rita, et al, eds. TEST-TUBE WOMEN: WHAT FUTURE FOR MOTHERHOOD? London: Pandora, 1984.

2409 Behuniak-Long, Susan. “Radical Conceptions: Reproductive Technologies and Feminist Theories.” WOMEN & POLITICS 10, no.3 (1990): 39-64.

2410 Bullough, Vern L. “A Brief Note on Rubber Technology and Contraception: The Diaphragm and the Condom.” TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE 22, no.1 (1981): 104-111.

2411 Cederqvist, Lars L., and Fuchs, Fritz. “Antenatal Sex Determination: An Historical Review.” CLINICAL OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY 13 (March 1970): 159-177.

2412 Corea, Gena. MAN-MADE WOMEN. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.


2414 Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. “Genetic Technology and Reproductive Choice: An Ethics for Autonomy.” THE CODE OF CODES: SCIENTIFIC AND SOCIAL ISSUES IN THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT, ed. Daniel J. Kevles and Leroy Hood, pp.244-264. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992.

2415 Das, Kedarnath. OBSTETRIC FORCEPS: ITS HISTORY AND EVOLUTION. St. Louis: Mosby, 1929.


2417 Hanmer, Jalna, and Allen, Pat. “Reproductive Engineering: The Final Solution?” FEMINIST ISSUES 2, no.1 (Spring 1982): 53-74. Repr. from ALICE THROUGH THE MICROSCOPE, ed. by the Brighton Women and Science Group. London: Virago, 1980.

2418 Hanmer, Jalna. “Reproductive Technology: The Future for Women?” MACHINA EX DEA: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES ON TECHNOLOGY, ed. by Joan Rothschild, pp.183-197. New York: Pergamon, 1983.

2419 Landry, Donna, and MacLean, Gerald. “Of Forceps, Patents and Paternity: TRISTRAM SHANDY.” EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY STUDIES 23 (Summer 1990): 522-541.

2420 Laufe, Leonard. OBSTETRIC FORCEPS. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.

2421 Leavitt, Judith Walzer. “The Growth of Medical Authority: Technology and Morals in Turn-of-the-Century Obstetrics.” MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY QUARTERLY 1, no.3 (1987): 230-255.

2422 Mintz, Morton. AT ANY COST: CORPORATE GREED, WOMEN, AND THE DALKON SHIELD. New York: Pantheon, 1985.

2423 Perry, Susan, and Dawson, Jim. NIGHTMARE: WOMEN AND THE DALKON SHIELD. New York: Macmillan, 1985.

2424 Ratcliff, Kathryn Strother, ed. HEALING TECHNOLOGY: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1989. Includes articles on fetal monitors, postmodern pregnancy, and new reproductive technologies. While the focus is on current practices, information is provided on the historical development of new technologies.

2425 REPRODUCTIVE AND GENETIC ENGINEERING: INTERNATIONAL FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES 1, no.1- (March 1988- ). Journal devoted to these issues. Chiefly contemporary.

2426 Rose, Hilary, and Hanmer, Jalna. “Women’s Liberation, Reproduction, and the Technological Fix.” London: Tavistock, 1976. SEXUAL DIVISIONS AND SOCIETY, ed. by Diana Leonard Barker and Sheila Allen, pp.199-223.


2428 Rowland, Robyn. LIVING LABORATORIES: WOMEN AND REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.

2429 Spallone, Patricia, and Steinberg, Deborah Lynn. MADE TO ORDER: THE MYTH OF REPRODUCTIVE AND GENETIC PROGRESS. Oxford, England: Pergamon, 1987. Twenty-one articles. Not historical. Bibliography, pp.231-236.

2430 Stanworth, Michelle, ed. REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: GENDER, MOTHERHOOD, AND MEDICINE. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.

2431 Wertz, Richard W., and Wertz, Dorothy C. LYING-IN: A HISTORY OF CHILDBIRTH IN AMERICA: ITS TECHNOLOGIES AND SOCIAL RELATIONS. New York: Free Press, 1977; New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989. Expanded ed. Includes bibliographic essay.

2432 Woliver, Laura R. “The Influence of Technology on the Politics of Motherhood: An Overview of the United States.” WOMEN’S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 14 (1991): 479-490.

2433 WOMEN’S STUDIES INTERNATIONAL FORUM 8, no.5 (1985); Special Issue: “Reproductive and Genetic Engineering.”