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Attributes lacking in one the anthologies are most likely compensated for in another. Altogether, the four books and one journal should give the reader a good idea of what ecofeminism “means.” Yet much more literature exists. The following books, [categorized by topic (many of which were introduced in the anthologies),] offer deeper knowledge of the subject.
Adams, Carol J., ed. ECOFEMINISM AND THE SACRED. New York: Continuum Publishing, 1993.
First anthology dedicated entirely to the issue of ecofeminism and spirituality. Assesses various religious traditions from a feminist standpoint. Interprets and critiques ecofeminist spiritualities. Themes of interrelationship, solidarity, transformation, and embodiment pull together the articles. [SPIRITUALITY]
Adams, Carol J. THE SEXUAL POLITICS OF MEAT: A FEMINIST-VEGETARIAN CRITICAL THEORY. New York: Continuum, 1990.
Details the interrelationships between feminist and vegetarian concerns and examines the connections between male dominance and meat eating. Demonstrates the ways in which animals’ oppression and women’s oppression are linked. [ANIMAL RIGHTS]
Braidotti, Rosi, et al. WOMEN, THE ENVIRONMENT, AND DEVELOPMENT: TOWARDS A THEORETICAL SYNTHESIS. London: Zed Books, 1994.
“Explores…the themes of women, the environment, and development on the theoretical level.” Surveys alternative development strategies and offers ideas for reform in the current economic system. [DEVELOPMENT]
Gray, Elizabeth Dodson. GREEN PARADISE LOST. Roundtable Press, 1981.
Describes the urgent need to remythologize “Genesis” and cherish our present world as Eden. [SPIRITUALITY]
Griffin, Susan. WOMEN AND NATURE: THE ROARING INSIDE HER. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1978.
Book-length prose-poem. Juxtaposes the voices of women, animals, and the natural world against voices of patriarchy gathered from theological texts, the writings of early philosophers, scientists’ diaries, and other male sources of history. [CLASSICS]
Merchant, Carolyn. THE DEATH OF NATURE: WOMEN, ECOLOGY, AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980.
Examines “the values associated with the images of women and nature as they relate to the formation of the modern world and [the] implications for life today.” Argues that conceptualizing the earth as a machine, a result of the Scientific Revolution, rather than a living organism has sanctioned the domination of nature and women. [CLASSICS]
Mies, Maria and Vandana Shiva. ECOFEMINISM. London: Zed Books, 1993.
Addresses the “inherent inequalities in world structures which permit the North to dominate the [S?]south [and] men to dominate women.” Proposes the creation of a holistic, all-life-embracing cosmology and anthropology. [DEVELOPMENT]
Rodda, Annabel, ed. WOMEN AND THE ENVIRONMENT. London: Zed Books, 1993.
Collection of articles detailing the role of women as producers, consumers and agents of environmental change and the effects of the environment and its degradation on women. Includes case studies of projects that women are implementing around the world. Defines key environmental terms and gives ideas for personal action. [THEORY]
Shiva, Vandana. STAYING ALIVE: WOMEN, ECOLOGY, AND DEVELOPMENT. London: Zed Books, 1989.
Questions the meaning of progress, science.html, and development, [concepts] which the author believes destroy life and threaten survival. Reveals how rural Indian women experience and perceive ecological destruction and its causes, and how they have conceived and initiated processes to halt the destruction of nature and begin its regeneration. [DEVELOPMENT]
Shiva, Vandana. VIOLENCE OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION: THIRD WORLD AFRICULTURE, ECOLOGY AND POLITICS. London: Zed Books, 1991.
Documents the vast destructiveness of the Green Revolution, its devastation of genetic diversity and soil fertility, its contribution to conflicts in the Punjab. Warns of further environmental and social damage. [DEVELOPMENT]
Sontheimer, Sally. WOMEN AND THE ENVIRONMENT: A READER. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1991.
An anthology of women’s lives in light of the ensuing ecological destruction in developing countries. Contains a collection of essays that “explore interrelationships between women and their ecological base of survival” and how Third World women are responding to the situation. Provides a complete picture of a reality in which women are “less the cause of environmental destruction than the victims of a cycle of events beyond their control.” Shows the ability of women to organize themselves to fight this destruction and carry out actions that improve their communities’ lives. [DEVELOPMENT]
By Julie Knutson. Prepared as an undergraduate independent study at Univ. of Wisconsin-Parkside, Spring 1995.