Library Copying or Other Reproduction

In general, library services that involve copying or other reproduction of copyrighted materials meet at least one of the following conditions.

Such library use is permitted because:

  • the material is in the public domain;
  • the copyright holder has given permission for the use;
  • the libraries have paid a royalty or other fee for the use;
  • a governing contract or license agreement permits the use;
  • the use is allowable under the provisions of copyright statute (Sec. 108: Limitations on Exclusive Rights: Reproduction by Libraries and Archives);
  • the use is allowable under the provisions of Fair Use (Sec. 107: Limitations on Exclusive Rights: Fair Use) as determined using a case-by-case fair use analysis of the four factors: purpose, nature, amount, market effect.

Adapted from the University of Minnesota: General Conditions of Use: