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Having determined that an abstract is a description or summary of the main points of a (usually) scholarly article, here are more details about this particular abstract.

One way to determine a site's origin is to "lop-off" the last element of the URL to discover its context. In this instance, by deleting "haberland.html" from <> you should find some answers.

The modified URL opens this site ...

screen capture, LANIC, "Labor and Free Trade: Abstracts of Selected Papers from the IX Southern Labor Studies Conference, 1995." The IX Souther Labor Studies Conference was held at the University of Texas at Austin from 26 October through 29 October 1995.  The theme of this meeting was Labor Before and After Free Trade, highlighting Texas and the Southern United States as the crossroads fo the Americas for African, Anglo, and Hispanic American workers.  Ray Marshall, the former US secretary of labor, delivered the key note address on The Role of Unions in the Global Economy. The academic program for this event involved historians, sociologists, economists, anthropologists, and political scientists who exchanged papers and views on the topic.  Participants came from Canada, Mexico, Chile, Australia, and the United States.  Labor leaders also attended and represented the views of the working people.  Subjects of papers include gender, migration, rural workers, and industrial labor especially in comparative perspective.  The organizer of the conference was Jonathan Brown, Institute of Latin American Studies, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712; tel (512)471-5551; fax 471-3090;

... which is a description of papers presented at a conference at the University of Texas in 1995. This paper may or may not have been subsequently published in a scholarly journal. Many conference presentations are given as talks but never published. Often an abstract provides enough information to be useful even if you cannot locate a published version. It can still be cited as an abstract found on the Internet.

(For more information on citing on-line resources check out the Internet Citation Guide published by Memorial Library at the University of Wisconsin-Madison -

If you wanted to find out if this article had been published, what one thing should you NOT do?

look elsewhere on the web for the author's name.
look in your library's catalog.
look in some journal databases such as Academic Search
call the University of Texas at Austin, the conference sponsor, and ask how to get a copy.


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